Understanding mental models: How to make better decisions in business
Mental models are frameworks for understanding the world. They are simplified representations of reality that help us navigate complex situations and make better decisions.
A mental model is a way of understanding a concept or phenomenon that helps us predict how it will behave in different situations. It is a simplified representation of reality that allows us to process information and decide quickly.
We use mental models in business to help make better decisions. They provide a way to understand complex systems and anticipate how different factors will interact to affect outcomes. By using mental models, leaders can identify potential risks and opportunities, and develop strategies to capitalize on them. There are many benefits of using mental models:
- Help us think more clearly and make better decisions.
- Enable us to see connections and patterns in complex systems.
- Help us expect future developments and adapt accordingly.
- Allow us to communicate ideas more effectively.
The "Jobs to be Done" Mental Model: This model, developed by Clayton Christensen, suggests that consumers don't buy products or services, they hire them to do a job. By understanding the "job" that a customer is trying to accomplish, a business can develop products and services that better meet their needs. For example, when Uber launched, it understood that the job people needed to do was not just to get a ride but also to get a convenient, reliable and safe ride. By understanding this job, it could develop a service that met these needs, and it disrupted the taxi industry.
Like any business tool, it's important to be aware of the limitations. Mental model limitations include:
- Over-simplifying complex situations.
- Applying the wrong model to a situation.
- Not updating models as new information becomes available.
- Using models as a substitute for critical thinking.
The "Porter's Five Forces" Mental Model: This model, developed by Michael Porter, helps leaders understand the competitive forces that shape an industry. By analyzing the threat of new entrants, the bargaining power of suppliers, the bargaining power of buyers, the threat of substitute products or services, and the intensity of competitive rivalry, leaders can identify opportunities and threats to their business. For example, by analyzing the five forces, a company in the retail industry can understand the level of competition in the market and make strategic decisions on pricing, marketing, and differentiation to remain competitive.
Creating your own mental model can be a valuable way to understand complex systems and make better decisions. Here are a few steps to help you create your own mental model:
- Define the problem or system you want to understand: Start by identifying the problem or system that you want to create a mental model for. This could be anything from understanding a specific industry or market to analyzing a decision you need to make in your business.
- Gather information: Research and gather information about the problem or system you want to understand. This could include reading articles, books, or research papers, interviewing experts, or observing the system in action.
- Identify key concepts and relationships: As you gather information, identify the key concepts and relationships that are involved in the problem or system. These concepts and relationships will form the building blocks of your mental model.
- Create a visual representation: Once you have identified the key concepts and relationships, create a visual representation of your mental model. This could be a diagram, a flowchart, or any other type of visual representation that helps you understand the problem or system.
- Test and refine: Test your mental model by applying it to real-world situations and see how well it predicts outcomes. Use this feedback to refine and improve your mental model.
- Continuously update: As you gain more knowledge and new information becomes available, continuously update your mental model to reflect new insights.
It's important to note that creating a mental model is an ongoing process and requires continuous learning and updating. This will help you have a better understanding of the problem or system and make better decisions.
The "Iron Triangle" Mental Model: A company is planning to launch a new software product, and they use a mental model called "The Iron Triangle" to ensure they meet their objectives. It comprises three factors important in project management: cost, time, and scope. The company's project manager creates a visual representation of the Iron Triangle and uses it to set project goals and manage the project's progress. The manager ensures that the project stays within budget, completes on time and that they meet the scope of the project. By using the Iron Triangle as a mental model, the manager can quickly identify if any of the three factors are at risk of being compromised and take action to keep the project on track.
Mental models are powerful tools for making better decisions in business. By understanding the concepts and frameworks that shape our understanding of the world, we can navigate complex situations and anticipate future developments. By using mental models and continuously updating them, we can position ourselves and our businesses for success.